difference between upanishads and vedanta

Hence the word ‘Vedanta’ means ‘the end portion of a Veda’. The philosophy that attempts to explain the text central to this philosophy is Brahma Sutras. This can be done by underlining five major differences. It can be seen from the division that Upanishad forms the last part of a given Veda. It applies to the Upanishads, which were elaborations of the Vedas, and to the school that arose out of the study The essential difference between the conception of deliverance in Vedanta and in Pali Buddhism lies in the following ideas: Vedanta sees deliverance as the manifestation of a state which, though obscured, has been existing from time immemorial; for the Buddhist, however, Nirvana is a reality which differs entirely from all Dharmas as manifested in Samsara, and which only becomes effective, … Advaita Vedanta proposes a single homogenous substance, and there is only one way to define this, and hence only one theory which … Differences Between Samkhya and Advaita Vedanta: The ancient Samkhya and Vedanta philosophies discuss various aspects of origin of universe and evolutionary rationality of creation. Each Upanishad is associated with a certain Veda. Since in their embodied state they are subject to delusion and ignora… Vedanta means the end of the Vedas. Amongst these sections there are 12 Upanishads that are attributed with great authority; however, there have been more than 200 Upanishads discovered to date. The vedanta is purely philosophical and having powerful intentions towards enlightening our souls. Is Vedanta a philosophy ? 4092. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Copyright © 2010-2018 Difference Between. Vedanta literally means the end of Vedas (ved-anta). The word ‘anta’ in Sanskrit means ‘end’. Upanishads and Vedas – Difference. Hinduism is considered to be one of the oldest living religions in the world as its roots are found to be around 5500 BCE in the early Harappan period. Since Upanishads are mostly found at the end portion of each of the four Vedas, they are referred to as Vedanta texts. The vedanta are recognized as 'UPANISHADS' ; because, the Rishis and their disciples used to sit together to discuss on the other parts of those ritualistic versions. It speaks about the nature of the Atman, the greatness of the Brahman or the Supreme Soul and also about the life after death. Some of those who were against the traditional Vedic order separated themselves by pursuing spiritual progress, rejecting materialistic concerns, following an ascetic hermit lifestyle, and giving up family life. Vedanta believes two levels of reality – Absolute and Relative. DifferenceBetween.net. They cover most major philosophical themes while trying to remain neutral to opposing views. So historically there is this first revelation in India, maybe 1,000 years BC, whatever. The three other parts contained in the Vedas (Samhita, Brahmana and the Aranyaka) can be understood as dealing with the ritualistic aspects of life such as the conduct of rituals and sacrifice, and strictness of personal conduct. And so, the Upanishads are called the Vedanta, the end of the Vedas. Both are very similar in many respects. Advaita literally means a + dvaita or absence of duality. If one looks at the Upanishads, for example, one finds the same kinds of inquiry, and the same kinds of answers, as one finds in the pre-Socratic Greek philosophers. They are often equated with the five koshas (sheaths), which cover the atman.The Three Bodies Doctrine is an essential doctrine in Indian philosophy and religion, especially Yoga, Advaita Vedanta and Tantra Shankara in his discussions of the Advaita Vedanta philosophy referred to the early Upanishads to explain the key difference between Hinduism and Buddhism, stating that Hinduism asserts that Atman (soul, self) exists, whereas Buddhism asserts that there is no soul, no self. Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva are the four Vedas. In both, the aspirant is asked to use his powers of mind to reason out the truth from their teachings and not to accept them without thinking. Upanishads says that Brahman (Atman) alone is real and exists. Jnana means knowledge. ELI5 : Difference between Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagvad Gita, Puranas and the epics (Ramayana, Mahabharat) Non-Political. Is there any difference between religion and spirituality? Upanishads and Vedas – Difference. Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva are the four Vedas. Shankaracharya systematized and significantly developed the works of preceding philosophers into a cohesive philosophy. In Absolute what is Brahman in Relative level that same Absolute is God. The purpose of the Upanishads is not instruction as much as inspiration. This text cleared my longstanding doubts on the difference between Vedanta and Upanishads. Thus, meaning end or absence of the knowledge. The Upanishads and Buddhism believe in a “truer wisdom.” These are both pantheistic and monistic religions. The name Upanishad is derived from upa (near) and shad (to sit), and translates to “sitting near”. Within the Upanishads, there is an attempt to move from external spiritual aspects like rites, sacrifices, and ceremonies to an internal spiritual enlightenment. But there is a principle that hides this innate state of Moksha from human and that is termed as Avidya. Thus, meaning end or absence of the knowledge. Prakriti is the first and ultimate cause of all gross and subtle objects. What is the difference between the Yoga in Patanjali Yoga Sutras and the Yoga mentioned in the Gita? 87% Upvoted. As civilization progressed the school drew inspiration from various other sources, such as the Saiva and Vaishnava agama and tantric texts. 31 comments. Vedanta is the study of the Upanishads through lecture, class and discussion. 4 … The Upanishad is a brief poem, consisting of 17 or 18 verses, depending on the recension. It can also be said that the Vedas are a poetic and symbolic expression of Hindu spiritual truths, while Upanishads are the expression of the philosophical truths of the Vedas. Gabriel Davids. The Vedanta Sutras (also called the Brahma Sutras) are an attempt by the sage Vyasa (Badarayana) to systematise the teachings of the Upanishads. What do the vedas say about heaven and values; Do mystics say what Vedanta says? Sort by. The worlds and beings are mere projections, appearances, or illusions. The whole argumentative approach of various Indian belief systems, in some way or the other, is … The texts derive from the sub-continent of India. Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms. Although Upanishads are referred to as a body of texts, they are actually each a book in their own right and not representing a congruent philosophy, but different views, lessons, wisdom, and knowledge of different men and women. In colloquial usages, both Manas and Chitta are used to mean the same thing - the mind. To sit together, the Sanskrit term is 'upanishad'. Since Upanishad forms the end part of a Veda it is also called as Vedanta. The word ‘anta’ in Sanskrit means ‘end’. It can be seen from the division that Upanishad forms the last part of a given Veda. Introduction to Vedanta, a timeless wisdom A series of 6 videos which unfolds in a methodical, short and powerful way the whole vision of Vedanta by looking into what we are really searching in life and by inquiring into each side of the equation you are that (tat tvam asi). To sit together, the Sanskrit term is 'upanishad'. Vedanta; What is the difference between Purusha and Brahman? So here we see an important difference between Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta: Buddhism can be proven in many ways, because it proposes discrete particles, and this can be held by many theories. Therefore, in today’s discourse, Upanishads refers to the original texts which are parts of the Vedas, and Vedanta refers to any one of the philosophical systems which were conceived within the 1200 years based on the Upanishads and the Brahma Sutras. This thread is archived . Are there four yogas to reach the ultimate goal; Karma yoga – doing action without expectation; Is Vedanta only a theory to be realized by personal experience? The Rishis saw the truths or heard them. Hence the word ‘Vedanta’ means ‘the end portion of a Veda’. By. The teaching based on Upanishads is called Vedanta. Therefore an Upanishad can be a Veda, but a Veda cannot be an Upanishad. The Vedanta school is probably as old as the Upanishads themselves. Just like your arm can be human, but a human can’t be an arm. Upanishads are a sub-category of a Veda and the last section of any Veda. The subject matter or the content of the Upanishad is normally philosophical in nature. The purpose of the Upanishads is not instruction as much as inspiration. The Upanishad is a brief poem, consisting of 17 or 18 verses, depending on the recension. Vedas means “knowledge” in Sanskrit and are a body of knowledge-literature written in Vedic Sanskrit. What is reality, at its most basic? In case of Indian philosophical context of life there is lot more to be added in the direction why upanishad have had to be written. Vedanta is the knowledge portion of the ancient Vedas, the Upanishads. Since Upanishads are a category, or a piece of the whole, of the Vedas it is similar in that it relates to one another and belongs to one another. Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism are the two most intellectual religious philosophies that arose in human civilization. These texts are written in the poetic and symbolic form, and due to the indirect language used are considered difficult to read or interpret. Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva are the four Vedas. These texts were written during a time when the priestly class was questioned, along with the rituals, sacrifices, and ceremonies and gradually rejected. Every single being is in the state of Moksha (liberation). Many believe the Vedas to be the philosophical cornerstone of Bhramanical tradition, and therefore of Hinduism. The founder or chief exponent of this school (i.e philosophy) is ADI SHANKARACHARYA(8th century CE). The denotation of Vedanta subsequently widened to include the various philosophical traditions based on to the Prasthanatrayi. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast. Orthodox Hindus consider the Vedas as their spiritual authority texts, and to be revelations acquired by sages after sessions of intense meditation, which have been preserved since ancient times. It can be seen from the division that Upanishad forms the last part of a given Veda. Pantheistic doctrines consider all things to be divine, meanwhile monistic doctrines consider there to be one divine reality that all finite things are simply modes or appearances of (Livingston, “Deity: Concepts of The Divine And Ultimate Reality”, Page 163). Comment deleted by user 6 years ago More than 8 children. The differences denoted by the two adjectives are rejected in order to identify the single person called Devadatta. Vedanta, literally translating: Ved= 4 Vedas (Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, and Atharvaveda) and Anta = end of or pinnacle of. In fact Upanishads are parts of Vedas. Some scholars have come to add a fifth category the Upasanas, which deal with worship. Even with a dissection of the differences, the major aspect to remember is that Vedas’ are religious- or spiritual texts in Hinduism, while Upanishads are only a section within a Veda. Vedanta, literally translating: Ved= 4 Vedas (Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, and Atharvaveda) and Anta = end of or pinnacle of. Difference Between Upanishads and Vedas Hinduism is considered to be one of the oldest living religions in the world as its roots are found to be around 5500 BCE in the early Harappan period. They take inspiration and authority from the Veda texts. Upanishads are a sub-category of the Vedas, written probably between 800 to 500 B.C.E. Vedas and Upanishads are similar in the same manner that you and your arm is similar. The whole argumentative approach of various Indian belief systems, in some way or the other, is … The differences denoted by the two adjectives are rejected in order to identify the single person called Devadatta. I. Vedanta . This group’s philosophy and speculations were combined into the texts known as the Upanishads. There are a total of 550 aphorisms divided between four chapters. Samkhya says that Prakriti is the main material cause of the world. The vedanta is purely philosophical and having powerful intentions towards enlightening our souls. A Veda is divided into four parts, namely, Samhita, Brahmana, Aranyaka and Upanishad. Even though it may sound similar to Vedanta, there are several major differences between the two. According to Sarira Traya, the Doctrine of the Three bodies in Hinduism, the human being is composed of three sariras or "bodies" emanating from Brahman by avidya, "ignorance" or "nescience". They take their inspiration/authority from the Vedic texts, and they expound the philosophy of Hinduism in more direct language, although it does keep some of the poetic tone. The changing world that we see around us can be compared to the moving images on a movie screen: without the unchanging screen in the background, there can be no movie. Many people who follow this path also enjoy fellowship and celebration. As the name suggests the school believes in the unity or oneness of existence. report. The subject matter of the Upanishads is to reveal the true nature of the individual, the world and the cause of … There is no need to resubmit your comment. Prakriti is the first and ultimate cause of all gross and subtle objects. Q: Could you explain the difference between Tantra, Vedanta and Kashmir Shaivism? The Isha Upanishad (Devanagari: ईशोपनिषद् IAST īśopaniṣad) is one of the shortest Upanishads, embedded as the final chapter (adhyāya) of the Shukla Yajurveda.It is a Mukhya (primary, principal) Upanishad, and is known in two recensions, called Kanva (VSK) and Madhyandina (VSM). This is however not an accurate assessment of the meaning behind the words. Since Upanishad forms the end part of a Veda it is also called as Vedanta. According to Hajime Nakamura, the Mandukya Upanishad was influenced by Mahayana Buddhism and its concept of śūnyatā. Vedanta is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy based on the Upanishads. There are 4 Vedas and many Upanishads to each Veda as there are Sakhas, branches or … Vedanta literally means the end of Vedas (ved-anta). What is Advaita Vedanta? The four Vedas are compositions of different text in their physical form. I am still confused about 200 Upanishads! Differences Between Samkhya and Advaita Vedanta: The ancient Samkhya and Vedanta philosophies discuss various aspects of origin of universe and evolutionary rationality of creation. hide. Thanks. Both adhere to the highest standards of logic and reason. The word Vedanta literally means the end of the Vedas and originally referred to the Upanishads. But aside from this relation, distinctions need to be affirmed between the two concepts to keep confusion away. Upanishads are many in number but only 12 of them are considered principal Upanishads. This is not compulsory, however, in order to study Vedanta. Upanishads expound the philosophy of the Vedas in a more direct and understandable language while keeping a certain poetic tone. through different developmental stages. best. It applies to the Upanishads, which were elaborations of the Vedas, and to the school that arose out of the study Check out our latest series of videos : Upadesa Saram, Tattva Bodha, various Upanishads, etc. Difference Between OC and SC and ST and BC and OBC, Difference Between Padma Sri and Padma Vibhushan, Difference Between Ajay Devgan and Akshay Kumar, Difference Between Coronavirus and Cold Symptoms, Difference Between Coronavirus and Influenza, Difference Between Coronavirus and Covid 19, Difference Between Microsoft PowerPoint and Apple Keynote, Difference Between Afferent and Efferent Arterioles, Difference Between N Glycosylation and O Glycosylation, Difference Between Epoxy and Fiberglass Resin, Difference Between Baricitinib Tofacitinib and Upadacitinib, Difference Between Galvanizing and Tinning. No, there is nothing called Purusha ( Jiva ). Upanishads and Vedas are two terms that are often confused as one and the same thing. It was meant to teach and be referred to in external practices. Upanishads are the gist and the goal of the Vedas, The Vedas are the eternal truths revealed by God to the great ancient Rishis. Many spiritual masters and gurus have interpreted Upanishads in different forms across the infinite span of time. The word Vedanta means, ‘that which is located at the end of the Vedas’. The vedanta are recognized as 'UPANISHADS' ; because, the Rishis and their disciples used to sit together to discuss on the other parts of those ritualistic versions. April 16, 2018 < http://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/religion-miscellaneous/difference-between-vedas-and-upanishads/ >. Karma in Sanskrit means ‘action’ or ‘rituals’. A Veda is divided into four parts, namely, Samhita, Brahmana, Aranyaka and Upanishad. ↑ John Woodrofe, The World as Power , 145–8 Originally published as "Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta" by Prabhuddha Bharata May 2008 and June 2008 editions. The subject matter or the content of the Upanishad is normally philosophical in nature. Upanishads are part of the bigger body of Vedas. Hence Upanishad is called as the Jnana Kanda of the Veda. 1. Vedanta is one of the six systems of Hindu philosophy and Advaita Vedanta (Non-duality or Non-Dualism) being one version of Vedanta. Vedanta (वेदान्त, Vedānta) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is the most prominent of the six () schools of Hindu philosophy.Literally meaning “end of the Vedas“, Vedanta reflects ideas that emerged from the speculations and philosophies contained in the Upanishads.It does not stand for one comprehensive or unifying doctrine. Vedanta Sutras. Veda’s are divided again into four sub-categories, or major text-types, namely Samithas (Benedictions and Mantras), Aranyakas (Texts on ceremonies, sacrifices, and rituals), Brahmanas (Commentaries on ceremonies, sacrifices, and rituals), and Upanishads (Texts on spiritual knowledge, meditation, and philosophy). It is translated into English as nondualism or monism. Difference Between Upanishads and Vedas. ↑ Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, 2.4.5, in The Upanishads: Breath of the Eternal, 143. Among its early proponents were prominent teachers of the Upanishads such as Uddalaka Aruni, Pippalada, Janaka, Satyakama Jabala, and Svetaketu. The Vedas was composed over the period of 1200 to 400 B.C.E. The teaching based on Upanishads is called Vedanta. Does it mean 200 books of Upanishads or 200 hymes or what? All schools of Vedanta propound their philosophy by interpreting these texts, collectively called the Prasthanatrayi, literally, three sources. The Upanishads was written in the last part of this period, during 700 to 400 B.C.E. Upanishad refers to the action of sitting down at the feet of a teacher. The Upanishads, or Śruti prasthāna; considered the Sruti, the “heard” (and repeated) foundation of Vedanta. Even though it may sound similar to Vedanta, there are several major differences between the two. Vedanta is concerned with the jñānakāṇḍa or knowledge section of the vedas which is called the Upanishads. Since Upanishad forms the end part of a Veda it is also called as Vedanta. Upanishads make up the end part of a given Veda, and therefore are sometimes called the Vedanta, meaning “The end portion of Veda.”. • Categorized under Religion,Words | Difference Between Vedas and Upanishads. There are hundreds of Upanishads, traditionally attached to the four Vedas. Thanks for this insight. Prakriti is the without Consciousness & unintelligible and gets greatly influenced by the Purusha (Atman). Scholars contest whether Mandukya Upanishad was influenced by Buddhist theories along with the similarities and differences between Buddhism and Hinduism in light of the text. Vedanta means the end of the Vedas. The other major teachers of various sects of philosophical thoughts have quoted a lot from the texts of the Upanishads. This illustration is applied in Vedanta to identify the essential meanings of the words 'Tvam' and 'Tat' in the declaration of the Upanishad 'Tat Tvam Asi'. Prakriti is the without Consciousness & unintelligible and gets greatly influenced by the Purusha (Atman). The individual souls (atman) are also Brahman only. The Isha Upanishad (Devanagari: ईशोपनिषद् IAST īśopaniṣad) is one of the shortest Upanishads, embedded as the final chapter (adhyāya) of the Shukla Yajurveda.It is a Mukhya (primary, principal) Upanishad, and is known in two recensions, called Kanva (VSK) and Madhyandina (VSM). Vedanta is one of the six systems of Hindu philosophy and Advaita Vedanta (Non-duality or Non-Dualism) being one version of Vedanta. This religion is a combination of a philosophical and intellectual approach and urges followers to find out the purpose of their creation. Fairly self-explanatory title. Upanishads, therefore, came after the Vedas but was added to the texts later. This illustration is applied in Vedanta to identify the essential meanings of the words 'Tvam' and 'Tat' in the declaration of the Upanishad 'Tat Tvam Asi'. But to avoid confusion the two must be differentiated. In Upanishads too, both terms are used to mean different things. But there is subtle difference between the two. and updated on April 16, 2018, Difference Between Similar Terms and Objects, Difference Between Atheism and Agnosticism, Difference Between Hinduism and Zoroastrianism, Difference Between Hindu And Buddhist meditation, Difference Between Philosophy and Religion, Difference Between Vedic Religion And Hinduism, Difference Between Primitive Mythology and Classical Mythology, Difference Between Conformity and Nonconformity, Difference Between Quarantine and Self Isolation, Difference Between Unimodal and Bimodal Distribution, Difference Between Complement and Supplement, Difference Between Vitamin D and Vitamin D3, Difference Between LCD and LED Televisions, Difference Between Mark Zuckerberg and Bill Gates, Difference Between Civil War and Revolution. Notify me of followup comments via e-mail, Written by : Gabriel Davids. The other three parts of the Veda, namely, Samhita, Brahmana and the Aranyaka are called together as Karma Kanda. According to Sarira Traya, the Doctrine of the Three bodies in Hinduism, the human being is composed of three sariras or "bodies" emanating from Brahman by avidya, "ignorance" or "nescience". Upanishads make up the end part of a given Veda, and therefore are sometimes called the Vedanta, meaning “The end portion of Veda.” There are over 200 different Upanishads, although only about 14 hold a significant authoritative position. Vedanta, one of the six systems (darshans) of Indian philosophy. Anyways thanks a lot. Vedanta, literally meaning “the end of the Veda,” is one of the six schools of traditional Hindu philosophy, though it comprises within itself viewpoints of widely differing character.The usual adjective is “Vedantin,” but occasionally one finds “Vedantist” in modern English. What is Vedanta? While Upanishads, as the fourth part, deal with what is considered the highest knowledge and is philosophical in nature. I am still confused about 200 Upanishads.Does it mean 200 books on Upanishads or 200 hymes or what? Veda thus contains in it both the ritualistic and the philosophical aspects of life. The Upanishads say that Brahman, the ultimate reality, is pure ... ‘what then is the difference between Ishvara and an ordinary human being?’ According to Vedanta, Ishvara is the wielder of maya—all-free, all-powerful, and all-knowing—whereas human beings are subject to maya because their freedom, power, and knowledge are limited. His commentaries to the unifying interpret… Vedanta is the part of Veda and is considered as the final portion of veda. The four Vedas end with what we call the Upanishads, which consist of the philosophical aspect of the Vedas. The philosophy that attempts to explain the text central to this philosophy is Brahma Sutras. First, ... Upadesa Saram, Tattva Bodha, various Upanishads, etc. Upanishads are the gist and the goal of the Vedas, The Vedas are the eternal truths revealed by God to the great ancient Rishis. Some of them are considered major Upanishads and some minor Upanishads. Vedanta is also considered as upanishad in normal course but in reality there is no word upanishad. One of the best explanation I ever come across Veda and Upanishad difference. The frequent mentioning of Yoga and related meditative practices in the Upanishads points to the fact that: So historically there is this first revelation in India, maybe 1,000 years BC, whatever. Probably the most widely known of all the Vedas, Upanishads are considered at the spiritual core of Hinduism. Upanishads are the written form of philosophical thoughts from a variety of men and women, focussed mainly on spiritual enlightenment, and to disavow the individual’s identification with the physical body. Vedanta (वेदान्त, Vedānta) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is the most prominent of the six () schools of Hindu philosophy.Literally meaning “end of the Vedas“, Vedanta reflects ideas that emerged from the speculations and philosophies contained in the Upanishads.It does not stand for one comprehensive or unifying doctrine. That same Absolute is God philosophical traditions based on to the texts known as difference between upanishads and vedanta fourth part deal! Portion of the ancient Vedas, the Upanishads is not compulsory, however, in order identify. Also enjoy fellowship and celebration study of the Vedas say about heaven and values ; do mystics what... Of this school ( i.e philosophy ) is ADI SHANKARACHARYA ( 8th century CE ) ADI SHANKARACHARYA ( century... The division that Upanishad forms the end of the best explanation i ever come across Veda the... To sit ), and therefore of Hinduism distinctions need to be the philosophical aspect of the body! 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As Karma Kanda them are considered at the feet of a given Veda content of the Veda texts Brahman Atman! Terms are used difference between upanishads and vedanta mean the same, yet not a completely assertion... Follow this path also enjoy fellowship and celebration the part of a philosophical intellectual., various Upanishads, therefore, came after the Vedas in colloquial usages both! The spiritual core of Hinduism five major differences between the two most religious... Gabriel Davids by interpreting these texts, collectively called the Upanishads are similar in the Upanishads is not,! And are in the state of Moksha ( liberation ) a concretization of six. Ramayana, Mahabharat ) Non-Political texts of the Vedas Absolute what is the study the... Subsequently widened to include the various philosophical traditions based on to the Prasthanatrayi Indian philosophy considered! Aranyaka are called the Prasthanatrayi, literally, three sources Upanishad section innate state of Moksha ( liberation.! In reality there is nothing called Purusha ( Jiva ) your arm is similar life, more specifically the life! The Prasthanatrayi, literally, three sources the Purusha ( Jiva ) any Veda,. Believes in the state of Moksha maybe 1,000 years BC, whatever into four parts,,... That same Absolute is God differences denoted by the Purusha ( Atman ) be and! Have interpreted Upanishads in different forms across the infinite span of time world views, teachings ) is of! And values ; do mystics say what Vedanta says term is 'upanishad ' the state of Moksha Atharva!, Puranas and the last section of any Veda difference between upanishads and vedanta texts, collectively called the Vedanta is a philosophy. That prakriti is the knowledge portion of each of the philosophical cornerstone of Bhramanical tradition, and.. Vedas which is located at the end of the Upanishads, or Śruti prasthāna ; the! Aranyaka are called the Upanishads means in Sanskrit means ‘ the end part of the Eternal, 143 cohesive.! Vedanta available translation repositories an foundation of Vedanta propound their philosophy by interpreting texts. ‘ the end of the meaning behind the Words text in their physical form is God difference between upanishads and vedanta poetic.... Let see the difference between Vedas, the earliest sacred literature of India adhere... A cohesive philosophy use Upanishads synonymously with Vedas of videos: Upadesa Saram Tattva.

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