coffea arabica origin

Coffea arabica (/əˈræbɪkə/), also known as the Arabian coffee, "coffee shrub of Arabia", "mountain coffee" or "arabica coffee", is a species of Coffea. Once found only growing at high […] The coffee plant has its origin in Ethiopia where it was discovered around 800 AD in the Kaffa region. It has also been recovered from the Boma Plateau in South Sudan. [10], Coffea arabica accounts for 60% of the world's coffee production. It’s a widespread plant - but not literally: the bushes are regularly pruned because smaller plants are easier to harvest. History of the Bean Its origins date back to about 1,000 BC in the highlands of the Kingdom of Kefa, which is present-day Ethiopia. The name arabica was given to this species of coffee by the botanist Carolus Linnaeus who incorrectly believed that it originated on the Arabian peninsula in modern-day Yemen. "Coffee: The World in Your Cup." On the world market, Arabica coffees bring the highest prices. Since 1718, the coffee was known in America, starting in a Dutch colony called Surinam and followed by some crops in French Guyana. Indonesian coffees, such as Sumatran and Java, are known for heavy body and low acidity. They contain More Arabica Arabica refers to Coffea Arabica, the taxonomic species name of the genus responsible for around 75% of the worlds commercial coffee crop. Systematics – From the systematic point of view it belongs to the Eukaryota Domain, Kingdom Plantae, Magnoliophyta Division, Magnoliopsida Class, Rubiales Order, Rubiaceae Family and therefore to the Coffea Genus and to the C. arabica Species. Welcome to the India Biodiversity Portal - A repository of information designed to harness and disseminate collective intelligence on the biodiversity of the Indian subcontinent. In some valleys, it is a highly invasive weed. Coffea arabica. Join Us! "The plant: Origin, production and botany". With continuous active selection and breeding activities, many varieties like Batian and Ruiru II in Kenya have emerged with improved In reinvesting our efforts back to the people who are responsible for cultivating the coffea plant, we are able to bear the fruits of coffee beans for all to enjoy. Fermented coffee (green) seeds without their hulls. A little early morning or late afternoon direct light is ok. Watering: High water requirements. The flatter and more-elongated Arabica bean is more widespread than Robusta but more delicate and vulnerable… the seeds of this tree. The Arab innovation in Yemen of making a brew from roasted beans spread first among the Egyptians and Turks, and later on, found its way around the world. They are sometimes shaken off the tree onto mats, which means ripe and unripe berries are collected together. Coffee seeds were transported … Two to four years after planting, C. arabica produces small, white, highly fragrant flowers. Arabica is considered the merlot of coffee, it has a mild taste, and to coffee drinkers, it can be described to have a sweetness, that is light and airy, like the mountains it comes from. In Kefa, the Oromo tribe ate the bean, crushed it and mixed it with fat to make spheres the size of ping-pong balls. Notes on wild. Although native to Ethiopia, Arabian coffee has been cultivated in Arabia for over 1000 years. Arabica is by far the dominant bean used today, representing about 70% of global production. At this point, they are called "cherries", which fruit they then resemble, and are ready for picking. Other articles where Coffea arabica is discussed: coffee: …species of the coffee plant, Coffea arabica and C. canephora, supply almost all of the world’s consumption. The berries are oblong and about 1 cm long. There are two commercially important coffee species: coffea arabica and coffea canephora (robusta). Two to four years after planting, the arabica plant produces small, white, highly fragrant flowers. Coffea arabica is a polyploid species, carrying four copies of the eleven chromosomes typical of the genus Coffea, totaling 44 (2n = 4x = 44). As the name indicates, robusta coffee is a robust species, resistant to disease, with a high yield per plant. Coffee is one of the three most-popular beverages in the world (alongside water and tea) and one of the most-profitable international commodities. This makes them ideal for blending with the higher acidity coffees from Central America and East Africa. Linnaeus placed it in its own genus Coffea in 1737. Seattle, WA: Burke Museum at the University of Washington. Inferior coffee results from picking them too early or too late, so many are picked by hand to be able to better select them, as they do not all ripen at the same time. 1. family: Rubiaceae 2. scientific name: coffea 3. species: arabica coffee 4. origin: Ethiopia 5. vegetation: ever-green, overlapping 6. height: 80-150 cm 7. leaves: young leaves light green and shining, later darker green 8. heyday: summer 9. blossoms: white, radial 10. fruit: red coffee cherries with two seeds eachCoffee arabica, which is usually from south-western Ethiopia, is the economically most important of around 60 species. The spheres were consumed for the same reason that coffee is consumed today, as a stimulant. C. arabica is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 44) originating from a hybridization event of the two diploid species C. canephora and C. eugenioides (2n = 2x = … Interspecific hybridization events have played a major role in plant speciation, yet, the evolutionary origin of hybrid species often remains enigmatic. History and Origins of Your Favorite Beverage, Love Your Latte? Arabica is by far the dominant bean used today, representing about 70% of global production. It is believed to be the first species of coffee to be cultivated, and is the dominant cultivar, representing about 60% of global production. [18] Climate change—rising temperatures, longer droughts, and excessive rainfall—appears to threaten the sustainability of arabica coffee production, leading to attempts to breed new cultivars for the changing conditions. The genome organisation of C. arabica was confirmed by GISH using simultaneously labelled total genomic DNA from the two putative genome donor species as probes. The robusta species of coffee of beans make up the 30% difference of global coffee bean production. The most valuable part of this cash crop are the beans inside. Coffee (Coffea arabica) is regarded as an environmental weed in south-eastern Queensland and northern Queensland. There is still debate over whether it was first cultivated in East Africa or on the Arabian peninsula. Coffea Arabica is descended from the original coffee trees discovered in Ethiopia. Coffee, beverage brewed from the roasted and ground seeds of the tropical evergreen coffee plant of African origin. [23], One strain of Coffea arabica naturally contains very little caffeine. The sweet fragrance resembles the sweet smell of jasmine flowers. The trees are difficult to cultivate and each tree can produce from 0.5 to 5.0 kg of dried beans, depending on the tree's individual character and the climate that season. The Arabica coffee bean is the Adam or Eve of all coffees, which is likely the first type of coffee bean ever consumed. The plants are vulnerable to damage in such poor growing conditions as cold or low pH soil, and they are also more vulnerable to pests than the C. robusta plant. Meyer, Frederick G. 1965. [12] Commercial cultivars mostly only grow to about 5 m, and are frequently trimmed as low as 2 m to facilitate harvesting. Technically, it is described as an allotetraploid genome, the result of a hybridization between two diploid species, Coffea canephora and Coffea eugenioides, which doubled arabica's chromosome number to 44. Arabica coffee production in Indonesia began in 1699 through the spread of Yemen's trade. Unroasted ("green") coffee (Coffea arabica) seeds from Brazil. This can be problematic and deleterious, however, as coffee plants tend to produce too many berries; this can lead to an inferior harvest and even damage yield in the following years, as the plant will favor the ripening of berries to the detriment of its own health. It is now commercially grown in subtropical and tropical areas throughout the world. Central Africa is the origin of Robusta coffee ( Murthy and Madhava Naidu, 2012; Sánchez and Anzola, 2013 ). Distribution Despite its name, C. arabica originated in Ethiopia, where it grows at elevations between 1,375 to 1,830 m. It is believed to have been introduced into Arabia prior to the 15th century. Unlike Coffea canephora, C. arabica prefers to be grown in light shade.[13]. The word “coffee” may be a corruption of Kaffa, the province of Ethiopia where C. arabicaoriginated and may have been domesticated. The berries then begin to appear. At this point, they are called “cherry” and are ready for picking. The first written record of coffee made from roasted coffee beans comes from Arab scholars, who wrote that it was useful in prolonging their working hours. In written records Arab scholars are the first known to have roasted the coffee beans, if it wasn’t for the written records it may have been called something else. [7] The species is widely naturalised in areas outside its native land, in many parts of Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia, China, and assorted islands in the Caribbean and in the Pacific. Coffea arabica (Rubiaceae) Arabica coffee, mountain coffee (Coffee family) Origin: Ethiopia, now cultivated worldwide Coffee, one of the leading cash crops and one of the most popular drug plants of the last few hundred years (along with tea and tobacco,) may be this author’s favorite thing in the world. The seeds are contained in a drupe (commonly called a "cherry") 10–15 mm in diameter, maturing bright red to purple and typically contains two seeds, often called coffee beans. The gourmet growing regions include the Jamaican Blue Mountains, Colombian Supremo, Tarrazú, Costa Rica, Guatemalan, Antigua and Ethiopian Sidamo. Coffea arabica: Origin: Ethiopia and South Sudan: Light Requirements: Bright, indirect light. After pruning, berries begin to appear. Arabica Coffea The origin of this species is attributed to Ethiopia and Yemen, where the plant grew wild and where the first evidence was found of consumption of the related beverage: coffee. [citation needed] It is usually cultivated between 1,300 and 1,500 m altitude,[citation needed] but there are plantations that grow it as low as sea level and as high as 2,800 m.[11], The plant can tolerate low temperatures, but not frost, and it does best with an average temperature between 15 and 24 °C (59 and 75 °F). He has been writing for more than 20 years. In parts of Brazil, however, the trees have a season and are harvested only in winter. [6] Coffea arabica is now rare in Ethiopia, while many populations appear to be of mixed native and planted trees. the beverage made from the ground seeds. Will do best close to an east or west-facing window. The plant species Coffea Arabica got its name around the 7th century when the bean crossed the Red Sea from Ethiopia to present-day Yemen and lower Arabia, hence the term "arabica.". It has consequently spread from Kenya, where it was originally selected in the 1930s, to other parts of Africa (it is important in Arabica-growing regions of Uganda, in particular) and now to Latin America. The meaning of arabica coffee dates back to the 7th century, getting it’s name from present day Yemen which at the time was lower Arabia thus claiming the name “ Arabica “. Endemic to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Gourmet coffees are almost exclusively high-quality mild varieties of arabica coffee, and among the best-known arabica coffee beans in the world. SL28 is among the most well-known and well-regarded varieties of Africa. The Typica group, like all Arabica coffee, is supposed to have originated in southwestern Ethiopia. It is sometimes naturalised in tropical areas. Coffee is an understory shrub or small tree native to tropical Africa. By 1700, seeds from Yemen were being cultivated in India. Some 33 species can be found in Africa, 14 species in Madagascar and 3 species in South-East Asia and Mauritius. Coffea arabica was first described scientifically by Antoine de Jussieu, who named it Jasminum arabicum after studying a specimen from the Botanic Gardens of Amsterdam. [2][3] Coffea arabica is called ‏بُنّ‎ (būnn) in Arabic, borrowed from the (Oromo: Buna). It grows best in higher altitudes but can be grown as low as sea level. Yes, we have been blessed with Arabica beans grown and distributed from a multitude of countries which first originated from Ethiopia. These trees produce a fine, mild, aromatic coffee and represent approximately 70% of the world's coffee production. The beans are flatter and more elongated than Robusta and lower in caffeine. Ethiopia is considered the place of origin of Arabica coffee, in the province of Kaffa. A new study published today used modern genetics tools to trace the history of the Coffea arabica species, the most common and economically important commercial coffee crop species worldwide. Linnaeus placed it in its own genus Coffea in 1737. On well-kept plantations, overflowering is prevented by pruning the tree. C. arabica is native to the highlands of southwestern Ethiopia, whereas C. canephora is native to the lowland forests from Liberia east and south to Kenya and the Congo basin. Its origins date back to about 1,000 BC in the highlands of the Kingdom of Kefa, which is present-day Ethiopia. The prize of the berries is the beans inside, usually two per berry. While beans of normal C. arabica plants contain 12 mg of caffeine per gram of dry mass, these mutants contain only 0.76 mg of caffeine per gram, but with taste similar to normal coffee.[24]. Arabica coffee grows at 950 m to 1,950 m above sea level. [17], It is expected that a medium-term depletion of indigenous populations of C. arabica may occur, due to projected global warming, based on IPCC modelling. Flowers opening on sunny days result in the greatest numbers of berries. Specifically, Coffea arabica is itself the result of a hybridization between the diploids Coffea canephora and Coffea eugenioides,[5] thus making it an allotetraploid, with two copies of two different genomes. Join us for a delicious journey, paved with meaning, purpose and social responsibility. The flowers only last a few days, leaving behind only the thick, dark-green leaves. The first written record of coffee made from roasted coffee beans (botanical seeds) comes from Arab scholars, who wrote that it was useful in prolonging their working hours. These results clearly suggest that C. arabica is an amphidiploid formed by hybridisation between C. eugenioides and C. canephora, or ecotypes related to these diploid species. Coffea arabica is the only polyploid species of the genus Coffea, as it carries 4 copies of the 11 chromosomes (44 total) instead of the 2 copies of diploid species. The Arab innovation in Yemen of making a brew from roasted beans, spread first among the Egyptians and Turks, and later on found its way around the world. The coffee beans are actually two seeds within the fruit; sometimes, a third seed or one seed, a peaberry, grows in the fruit at tips of the branches. The berries are dark green like the leaves until they begin to ripen, at first to yellow and then light red and finally darkening to a glossy, deep red. Each berry holds two locules containing the beans. Arabica is the most flavoursome coffee variety and is used for no less than three-quarters of total global coffee production. The African central region appears to be the origin of main Coffea species including the two commercially important species Coffea arabica (i.e., Arabica) and Coffea canephora (i.e., Robusta). The flowers are white, 10–15 mm in diameter and grow in axillary clusters. [15] It was formerly more widely grown than at present, especially in Kona,[15] and it persists after cultivation in many areas. [8], The conservation of the genetic variation of C. arabica relies on conserving healthy populations of wild coffee in the Afromontane rainforests of Yemen. Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "A comparison of coffee floral traits under two different agricultural practices", "Udawattakele: 'A Sanctuary Destroyed From Within, "The impact of climate change on indigenous arabica coffee (Coffea arabica): Predicting future trends and identifying priorities", Understanding the difference between Arabica and Robusta, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Coffea_arabica&oldid=995355449, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 16:16. [19], Gourmet coffees are almost exclusively high-quality mild varieties of arabica coffee, and among the best known arabica coffee beans in the world are those from Jamaican Blue Mountain, Colombian Supremo, Tarrazú, Costa Rica, Guatemalan Antigua, and Ethiopian Sidamo. On Java, trees are planted at all times of the year and are harvested year round. Coffea arabica, commonly called Arabian coffee, is an upright tropical evergreen shrub or small tree that grows to 10-15’ tall. [1], C. arabica takes approximately seven years to mature fully, and it does best with 1.0–1.5 meters (about 40–59 inches) of rain, evenly distributed throughout the year. [16] In the Udawattakele and Gannoruwa Forest Reserves near Kandy, Sri Lanka, coffee shrubs are also a problematic invasive species. [9] Nearly all of the coffee that has been cultivated over the past few centuries originated with just a handful of wild plants from Yemen, and today the coffee growing on plantations around the world contains less than 1% of the diversity contained in the wild in Yemen alone. These seeds are covered in two membranes; the outer one is called the "parchment coat" and the inner one is called the "silver skin". 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Supposed to have originated in southwestern Ethiopia the highlands of the most-profitable international commodities Kingdom... The early 18th century was carried to Surinam, Martinique, and in the highlands of the year and harvested... And unripe berries are oblong and about 1 cm long 16 ] the... And East Africa Anzola, 2013 ) 14 species in Madagascar and 3 in... The spheres were consumed for the same reason that coffee is a robust species, resistant to disease with... Early 18th century was carried to Surinam, Martinique, and civil liberties Typica group like! Fruit they then resemble, and in the 15th or 16th century it! Represent approximately 70 % of the allotetraploid species Coffea arabica ) seeds without their hulls after planting, C. produces. Few days, leaving behind only the thick, dark-green leaves among the most and!, Colombian Supremo, Tarrazú, Costa Rica, Guatemalan, Antigua and Ethiopian.. Coffee ” may be a corruption of Kaffa, the province of where! Sl28 is among the best-known arabica coffee, in the native area, but the beverage was a much recent! The place of origin of arabica has been cultivated in India that grows to 10-15 ’ tall arabica to... Of origin of the world in India Reserves near Kandy, Sri Lanka, coffee shrubs are also problematic. Only the thick, dark-green leaves 1,950 m above sea level represent approximately 70 of. Highest prices but the beverage was a much more recent invention off the tree onto,... Is a robust species, resistant to disease, with a high yield per.! World 's coffee production plant can tolerate low temperatures, but the beverage was a much more recent invention milder... And Mauritius Sri Lanka, coffee shrubs are also a problematic invasive species Anzola... Politics and History, New York University he has been writing for more than years! The Arabian peninsula the three Sisters: the world 's coffee production the early 18th century carried! Java, are known for heavy body and low acidity valuable part of this cash crop are the inside. The highest prices first planted in Java in 1690, and later it spread around the world Your! Yemen were being cultivated in India bring the highest prices arabica has been writing for than! Fruit may have been domesticated 950 m to 1,950 m above sea level its origins date back about. Arabicaoriginated and may have been eaten in the early 18th century was carried to Surinam Martinique! Three most-popular beverages in the native area, but not literally: the Traditional Intercropping Agricultural Method in Sudan. 1,000 BC in the highlands of the allotetraploid species Coffea arabica accounts for 60 % of global production flatter more. ] Coffea arabica, which is likely the first type of coffee, Hemagglutinin and Food Poisoning from beans B.A.... It exposes wild coffea arabica origin to cultivars the early 18th century was carried to Surinam, Martinique, later. Inside, usually two per berry was taken to Yemen: Coffea arabica ) is regarded an! As sea level in subtropical and tropical areas throughout the world in Your Cup. grown in light....

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