coffea arabica origin

By 1700, seeds from Yemen were being cultivated in India. These trees produce a fine, mild, aromatic coffee and represent approximately 70% of the world's coffee production. Linnaeus placed it in its own genus Coffea in 1737. I… Coffee History Ethiopia is the ancestral home of cultivated Arabica coffee with wild Coffea arabica L., being the parental shrub growing naturally in the moist forest. It is believed to be the first species of coffee to be cultivated, and is the dominant cultivar, representing about 60% of global production. [1] Coffee produced from the (less acidic, more bitter, and more highly caffeinated) robusta bean (C. canephora) makes up most of the remaining coffee production. On Java, trees are planted at all times of the year and are harvested year round. There is still debate over whether it was first cultivated in East Africa or on the Arabian peninsula. A little early morning or late afternoon direct light is ok. Watering: High water requirements. They contain More Arabica Arabica refers to Coffea Arabica, the taxonomic species name of the genus responsible for around 75% of the worlds commercial coffee crop. [8], The conservation of the genetic variation of C. arabica relies on conserving healthy populations of wild coffee in the Afromontane rainforests of Yemen. Will do best close to an east or west-facing window. Arabica is considered the merlot of coffee, it has a mild taste, and to coffee drinkers, it can be described to have a sweetness, that is light and airy, like the mountains it comes from. Here, we inferred the evolutionary origin of the allotetraploid species Coffea arabica , which is widely cultivated for Arabica coffee production. The flowers only last a few days, leaving behind only the thick, dark-green leaves. This makes them ideal for blending with the higher acidity coffees from Central America and East Africa. Arabica coffee grows at 950 m to 1,950 m above sea level. [17], It is expected that a medium-term depletion of indigenous populations of C. arabica may occur, due to projected global warming, based on IPCC modelling. : Arabica refers to Coffea Arabica, the taxonomic species name of the genus responsible More and other types, coffee genetic diversity and such. Its origins date back to about 1,000 BC in the highlands of the Kingdom of Kefa, which is present-day Ethiopia. In parts of Brazil, however, the trees have a season and are harvested only in winter. Unlike Coffea canephora, C. arabica prefers to be grown in light shade.[13]. The meaning of arabica coffee dates back to the 7th century, getting it’s name from present day Yemen which at the time was lower Arabia thus claiming the name “ Arabica “. Seattle, WA: Burke Museum at the University of Washington. Conversely, this also means the entire genetic diversity of Arabica has been skewed by the actions of a few fearless Dutchmen. As the name indicates, robusta coffee is a robust species, resistant to disease, with a high yield per plant. Coffee species such as Coffea canephora P. (Robusta) and C. arabica L. (Arabica) are important cash crops in tropical regions around the world. Water thoroughly once the top half-inch of soil feels dry. Two to four years after planting, the arabica plant produces small, white, highly fragrant flowers. The berries then begin to appear. Join Us! Unroasted ("green") coffee (Coffea arabica) seeds from Brazil. Each berry holds two locules containing the beans. Coffea arabica is the only polyploid species of the genus Coffea, as it carries 4 copies of the 11 chromosomes (44 total) instead of the 2 copies of diploid species. Coffee seeds were transported … "Coffee: The World in Your Cup." Other articles where Coffea arabica is discussed: coffee: …species of the coffee plant, Coffea arabica and C. canephora, supply almost all of the world’s consumption. Arabica is by far the dominant bean used today, representing about 70% of global production. History of the Bean Its origins date back to about 1,000 BC in the highlands of the Kingdom of Kefa, which is present-day Ethiopia. Arabica is the most flavoursome coffee variety and is used for no less than three-quarters of total global coffee production. Welcome to the India Biodiversity Portal - A repository of information designed to harness and disseminate collective intelligence on the biodiversity of the Indian subcontinent. In reinvesting our efforts back to the people who are responsible for cultivating the coffea plant, we are able to bear the fruits of coffee beans for all to enjoy. "The plant: Origin, production and botany". The first written record of coffee made from roasted coffee beans (botanical seeds) comes from Arab scholars, who wrote that it was useful in prolonging their working hours. Coffee (Coffea arabica) is regarded as an environmental weed in south-eastern Queensland and northern Queensland. The Arab innovation in Yemen of making a brew from roasted beans spread first among the Egyptians and Turks, and later on, found its way around the world. The sweet fragrance resembles the sweet smell of jasmine flowers. C. arabica is native to the highlands of southwestern Ethiopia, whereas C. canephora is native to the lowland forests from Liberia east and south to Kenya and the Congo basin. Central Africa is the origin of Robusta coffee ( Murthy and Madhava Naidu, 2012; Sánchez and Anzola, 2013 ). [10], Coffea arabica accounts for 60% of the world's coffee production. Interspecific hybridization events have played a major role in plant speciation, yet, the evolutionary origin of hybrid species often remains enigmatic. The Arabica coffee bean is the Adam or Eve of all coffees, which is likely the first type of coffee bean ever consumed. Wild plants grow between 9 and 12 m (30 and 39 ft) tall, and have an open branching system; the leaves are opposite, simple elliptic-ovate to oblong, 6–12 cm (2.5–4.5 in) long and 4–8 cm (1.5–3 in) broad, glossy dark green. The beans are flatter and more elongated than Robusta and lower in caffeine. Coffea arabica is native to northeast Tropical Africa (Southern Ethiopia, South Sudan (Boma Plateau); and possibly East Tropical Africa (Kenya, Mt Marsabit). Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "A comparison of coffee floral traits under two different agricultural practices", "Udawattakele: 'A Sanctuary Destroyed From Within, "The impact of climate change on indigenous arabica coffee (Coffea arabica): Predicting future trends and identifying priorities", Understanding the difference between Arabica and Robusta, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Coffea_arabica&oldid=995355449, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 16:16. It has also been recovered from the Boma Plateau in South Sudan. These are as dark green as the foliage, until they begin to ripen, at first to yellow and then light red and finally darkening to a glossy, deep red. Once found only growing at high […] The Arabica coffee bean is the Adam or Eve of all coffees, which is likely the first type of coffee bean ever consumed. On the world market, Arabica coffees bring the highest prices. The African central region appears to be the origin of main Coffea species including the two commercially important species Coffea arabica (i.e., Arabica) and Coffea canephora (i.e., Robusta). SL28 is among the most well-known and well-regarded varieties of Africa. Coffee fruit may have been eaten in the native area, but the beverage was a much more recent invention. The most valuable part of this cash crop are the beans inside. Arabica is by far the dominant bean used today, representing about 70% of global production. the beverage made from the ground seeds. [12] Commercial cultivars mostly only grow to about 5 m, and are frequently trimmed as low as 2 m to facilitate harvesting. [19], Gourmet coffees are almost exclusively high-quality mild varieties of arabica coffee, and among the best known arabica coffee beans in the world are those from Jamaican Blue Mountain, Colombian Supremo, Tarrazú, Costa Rica, Guatemalan Antigua, and Ethiopian Sidamo. The first written record of coffee made from roasted coffee beans comes from Arab scholars, who wrote that it was useful in prolonging their working hours. At this point, they are called "cherries", which fruit they then resemble, and are ready for picking. Endemic to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Arabica is considered a milder, more-flavourful and aromatic brew than Robusta, the main variety of C. canephora. The coffee beans are actually two seeds within the fruit; sometimes, a third seed or one seed, a peaberry, grows in the fruit at tips of the branches. It is also seen as a potential environmental weed or "sleeper weed" in northern New South Wales and other parts of coastal Queensland. [15] It was formerly more widely grown than at present, especially in Kona,[15] and it persists after cultivation in many areas. The robusta species of coffee of beans make up the 30% difference of global coffee bean production. Other scholars believe that the coffee plant was introduced from Yemen, based on a Yemeni tradition that slips of both coffee and qat were planted at 'Udein' ('the two twigs') in Yemen in pre-Islamic times.[4]. Coffea arabica (Rubiaceae) Arabica coffee, mountain coffee (Coffee family) Origin: Ethiopia, now cultivated worldwide Coffee, one of the leading cash crops and one of the most popular drug plants of the last few hundred years (along with tea and tobacco,) may be this author’s favorite thing in the world. Coffee is an understory shrub or small tree native to tropical Africa. The Three Sisters: the Traditional Intercropping Agricultural Method. Coffea arabica: Origin: Ethiopia and South Sudan: Light Requirements: Bright, indirect light. The word “coffee” may be a corruption of Kaffa, the province of Ethiopia where C. arabicaoriginated and may have been domesticated. These seeds are covered in two membranes; the outer one is called the "parchment coat" and the inner one is called the "silver skin". [23], One strain of Coffea arabica naturally contains very little caffeine. Join us for a delicious journey, paved with meaning, purpose and social responsibility. [16] In the Udawattakele and Gannoruwa Forest Reserves near Kandy, Sri Lanka, coffee shrubs are also a problematic invasive species. In some valleys, it is a highly invasive weed. This can be problematic and deleterious, however, as coffee plants tend to produce too many berries; this can lead to an inferior harvest and even damage yield in the following years, as the plant will favor the ripening of berries to the detriment of its own health. Scientific Coffea arabica English Arabica coffee Coffee shrub of Arabia Mountain coffee Dutch [6] Coffea arabica is now rare in Ethiopia, while many populations appear to be of mixed native and planted trees. Does Caffeine Affect the Taste of Coffee and Cola? The name arabica was given to this species of coffee by the botanist Carolus Linnaeus who incorrectly believed that it originated on the Arabian peninsula in modern-day Yemen. Specifically, Coffea arabica is itself the result of a hybridization between the diploids Coffea canephora and Coffea eugenioides,[5] thus making it an allotetraploid, with two copies of two different genomes. [7] The species is widely naturalised in areas outside its native land, in many parts of Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia, China, and assorted islands in the Caribbean and in the Pacific. The coffee plant (Coffea arabica L., 1753) is a shrub species belonging to the Rubiaceae family. He has been writing for more than 20 years. C. arabica is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 44) originating from a hybridization event of the two diploid species C. canephora and C. eugenioides (2n = 2x = … The gourmet growing regions include the Jamaican Blue Mountains, Colombian Supremo, Tarrazú, Costa Rica, Guatemalan, Antigua and Ethiopian Sidamo. The flowers are white, 10–15 mm in diameter and grow in axillary clusters. Indonesian coffees, such as Sumatran and Java, are known for heavy body and low acidity. The flatter and more-elongated Arabica bean is more widespread than Robusta but more delicate and vulnerable… Coffea arabica was first described scientifically by Antoine de Jussieu, who named it Jasminum arabicum after studying a specimen from the Botanic Gardens of Amsterdam. [18] Climate change—rising temperatures, longer droughts, and excessive rainfall—appears to threaten the sustainability of arabica coffee production, leading to attempts to breed new cultivars for the changing conditions. The plant was cultivated in Yemen around 1000 AD, and later it spread around the world. Learn the History of Coffee, Hemagglutinin and Food Poisoning From Beans, B.A., Politics and History, New York University. While beans of normal C. arabica plants contain 12 mg of caffeine per gram of dry mass, these mutants contain only 0.76 mg of caffeine per gram, but with taste similar to normal coffee.[24]. A new study published today used modern genetics tools to trace the history of the Coffea arabica species, the most common and economically important commercial coffee crop species worldwide. On well-kept plantations, overflowering is prevented by pruning the tree. Distribution Despite its name, C. arabica originated in Ethiopia, where it grows at elevations between 1,375 to 1,830 m. It is believed to have been introduced into Arabia prior to the 15th century. The seeds are contained in a drupe (commonly called a "cherry") 10–15 mm in diameter, maturing bright red to purple and typically contains two seeds, often called coffee beans. Coffea arabica (/əˈræbɪkə/), also known as the Arabian coffee, "coffee shrub of Arabia", "mountain coffee" or "arabica coffee", is a species of Coffea. Flowers opening on sunny days result in the greatest numbers of berries. These results clearly suggest that C. arabica is an amphidiploid formed by hybridisation between C. eugenioides and C. canephora, or ecotypes related to these diploid species. There are two commercially important coffee species: coffea arabica and coffea canephora (robusta). In almost all languages the name coffee refers to this region, but funny enough in Ethiopia the name is quite different; Ethiopians call it Buna. The trees are difficult to cultivate and each tree can produce from 0.5 to 5.0 kg of dried beans, depending on the tree's individual character and the climate that season. The Arab innovation in Yemen of making a brew from roasted beans, spread first among the Egyptians and Turks, and later on found its way around the world. It is now commercially grown in subtropical and tropical areas throughout the world. Fermented coffee (green) seeds without their hulls. [citation needed] It is usually cultivated between 1,300 and 1,500 m altitude,[citation needed] but there are plantations that grow it as low as sea level and as high as 2,800 m.[11], The plant can tolerate low temperatures, but not frost, and it does best with an average temperature between 15 and 24 °C (59 and 75 °F). a tree, Coffea arabica, of the madder family, the principal species of coffee cultivated in Latin America and the chief coffee tree of commerce. Coffee, beverage brewed from the roasted and ground seeds of the tropical evergreen coffee plant of African origin. Systematics – From the systematic point of view it belongs to the Eukaryota Domain, Kingdom Plantae, Magnoliophyta Division, Magnoliopsida Class, Rubiales Order, Rubiaceae Family and therefore to the Coffea Genus and to the C. arabica Species. [20][21][22], Coffea arabica was first described scientifically by Antoine de Jussieu, who named it Jasminum arabicum after studying a specimen from the Botanic Gardens of Amsterdam. The berries are oblong and about 1 cm long. In Kefa, the Oromo tribe ate the bean, crushed it and mixed it with fat to make spheres the size of ping-pong balls. Coffea arabica. The plant can tolerate low temperatures, but not frost. Arabica coffee grows best at high altitudes, has a much more refined flavor than other species, and contains about 1% caffeine by weight. It’s a widespread plant - but not literally: the bushes are regularly pruned because smaller plants are easier to harvest. The genome organisation of C. arabica was confirmed by GISH using simultaneously labelled total genomic DNA from the two putative genome donor species as probes. [1], C. arabica takes approximately seven years to mature fully, and it does best with 1.0–1.5 meters (about 40–59 inches) of rain, evenly distributed throughout the year. Ethiopia is considered the place of origin of Arabica coffee, in the province of Kaffa. Names. They are sometimes shaken off the tree onto mats, which means ripe and unripe berries are collected together. Pierre Tristam is an award-winning writer who covers Middle East, foreign affairs, immigration, and civil liberties. In written records Arab scholars are the first known to have roasted the coffee beans, if it wasn’t for the written records it may have been called something else. It is sometimes naturalised in tropical areas. the seeds of this tree. Although native to Ethiopia, Arabian coffee has been cultivated in Arabia for over 1000 years. It was first planted in Java in 1690, and in the early 18th century was carried to Surinam, Martinique, and Jamaica. Some 33 species can be found in Africa, 14 species in Madagascar and 3 species in South-East Asia and Mauritius. Since 1718, the coffee was known in America, starting in a Dutch colony called Surinam and followed by some crops in French Guyana. Well-known Italian coffee grower Ernesto Illy wrote in the June 2002 issue of Scientific American: Arabica takes about seven years to mature fully. [14], The coffee tree was first brought to Hawaii in 1813, and it began to be extensively grown by about 1850. Coffea Arabica is descended from the original coffee trees discovered in Ethiopia. Meyer, Frederick G. 1965. History and Origins of Your Favorite Beverage, Love Your Latte? The spheres were consumed for the same reason that coffee is consumed today, as a stimulant. Sometime in the 15th or 16th century, it was taken to Yemen. Notes on wild. [2][3] Coffea arabica is called ‏بُنّ‎ (būnn) in Arabic, borrowed from the (Oromo: Buna). Coffea arabica, commonly called Arabian coffee, is an upright tropical evergreen shrub or small tree that grows to 10-15’ tall. The berries are dark green like the leaves until they begin to ripen, at first to yellow and then light red and finally darkening to a glossy, deep red. The plant species Coffea Arabica got its name around the 7th century when the bean crossed the Red Sea from Ethiopia to present-day Yemen and lower Arabia, hence the term "arabica.". With continuous active selection and breeding activities, many varieties like Batian and Ruiru II in Kenya have emerged with improved At this point, they are called “cherry” and are ready for picking. The prize of the berries is the beans inside, usually two per berry. Coffee is one of the three most-popular beverages in the world (alongside water and tea) and one of the most-profitable international commodities. After pruning, berries begin to appear. The sweet fragrance resembles the sweet smell of jasmine flowers. 1. family: Rubiaceae 2. scientific name: coffea 3. species: arabica coffee 4. origin: Ethiopia 5. vegetation: ever-green, overlapping 6. height: 80-150 cm 7. leaves: young leaves light green and shining, later darker green 8. heyday: summer 9. blossoms: white, radial 10. fruit: red coffee cherries with two seeds eachCoffee arabica, which is usually from south-western Ethiopia, is the economically most important of around 60 species. The Typica group, like all Arabica coffee, is supposed to have originated in southwestern Ethiopia. It grows best in higher altitudes but can be grown as low as sea level. [9] Nearly all of the coffee that has been cultivated over the past few centuries originated with just a handful of wild plants from Yemen, and today the coffee growing on plantations around the world contains less than 1% of the diversity contained in the wild in Yemen alone. Linnaeus placed it in its own genus Coffea in 1737. Inferior coffee results from picking them too early or too late, so many are picked by hand to be able to better select them, as they do not all ripen at the same time. Genetic research has shown coffee cultivation is threatening the genetic integrity of wild coffee because it exposes wild genotypes to cultivars. Arabica coffee production in Indonesia began in 1699 through the spread of Yemen's trade. Typically, espresso is made from a blend of arabica and robusta beans. Technically, it is described as an allotetraploid genome, the result of a hybridization between two diploid species, Coffea canephora and Coffea eugenioides, which doubled arabica's chromosome number to 44. The plants are vulnerable to damage in such poor growing conditions as cold or low pH soil, and they are also more vulnerable to pests than the C. robusta plant. The coffee plant has its origin in Ethiopia where it was discovered around 800 AD in the Kaffa region. Two to four years after planting, C. arabica produces small, white, highly fragrant flowers. Coffea arabica is native to central Ethiopia. Coffea arabica is a polyploid species, carrying four copies of the eleven chromosomes typical of the genus Coffea, totaling 44 (2n = 4x = 44). Arabica Coffea The origin of this species is attributed to Ethiopia and Yemen, where the plant grew wild and where the first evidence was found of consumption of the related beverage: coffee. Coffea arabica is also found on Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya, but it is unclear whether this is a truly native or naturalised occurrence. Arabica coffee was first found in Yemen and documented by the 12th century. It has consequently spread from Kenya, where it was originally selected in the 1930s, to other parts of Africa (it is important in Arabica-growing regions of Uganda, in particular) and now to Latin America. Gourmet coffees are almost exclusively high-quality mild varieties of arabica coffee, and among the best-known arabica coffee beans in the world. , C. arabica prefers to be of mixed native and planted trees Food! Near Kandy, Sri Lanka, coffee shrubs are also a problematic invasive species planted at all times the! But can be grown in light shade. [ 13 ] coffee is consumed today representing. Fine, mild, aromatic coffee and represent approximately 70 % of the tropical shrub. Cherries '', which is present-day Ethiopia 3 species in South-East Asia and Mauritius ok. Watering: high Requirements... Java in 1690, and later it spread around the world arabica produces small, white, highly flowers. Shrub or small tree that grows to 10-15 ’ tall in its own genus Coffea in.! The arabica coffee was first found in Yemen and documented by the century! The spread of Yemen 's trade arabica is now commercially grown in subtropical and tropical areas throughout world... World 's coffee production for more than 20 years plant produces small, white, highly fragrant flowers best..., but the beverage was a much more recent invention now rare in Ethiopia where it was taken Yemen. American: arabica takes about seven years to mature fully main variety of C. canephora temperatures, but frost... 1700, seeds from Yemen were being cultivated in East Africa original coffee trees discovered Ethiopia! Affect the Taste of coffee and represent approximately 70 % of the world 's coffee production it best! East Africa or on the world the higher acidity coffees from central America and East Africa or the! Light Requirements: Bright, indirect light beans grown and distributed from blend... For heavy body and low acidity weed in south-eastern Queensland and northern Queensland,! Regions include the Jamaican Blue Mountains, Colombian Supremo, Tarrazú, Costa Rica, Guatemalan, and! 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